Spontaneous in theEmission, Absorption, Stimulated Emission,in the Pumping Schemes, Absorption and Stimulated Emission Rates,in the Absorption and Gain in the Coefficients, in the Resonance Energy in the Transfers. Properties in the of Laser Beam: in the Monochromaticity, in the Coherence, Directionality, Brightness.
Spectroscopy of Molecule and Semiconductors
Electronic Energyin the Levels, Molecular in the Energy Levels, in the Level Occupation at Thermal Equilibrium, Stimulated Transition,in the Selection Rules, in the Radiative andin the Nonradiative Decay, Semiconductor.
in the Plane Parallel (Fabry-Perot) Resonator, in the Concentric (Spherical) Resonator, Confocal, Resonator, Generalized Spherical Resonator, in the Ring Resonator, Stable in the Resonators, Unstablein the Resonators., Matrix Formulation of Geometrical in the Optics, Wave Reflection and Transmission in theat a Di electric Interface, Stability Condition Standing and Traveling in the Waves in a in thetwo Mirror Resonator , Longitudinal and Transverse Modes in a Cavity, Multilayer Dielectric in the Coatings, Fabry-Perot in the Interferometer. Small Signal in the Gain and Loop Gain.
Optical pumping: in the Flash lamp and Laser, in the Threshold Pump in the Power, pumping efficiency, Electrical Pumping: Longitudinal in the Configuration and Transverse in the Configuration, Gas Dynamics in the Pumping,in the Chemical Pumping.
Continuous Wave (CW) and pulsed lasers
Rate Equations, in the Threshold Condition and Output Power, Optimum in the Output Coupling, in the Laser Tuning, Oscillation and in the Pulsations in Lasers, Q-Switching and Mode -Locking Methods, Phase in the Velocity, Group Velocity, and in the Group -Delay in the Dispersion, in the Line broadening.
Solid State Lasers: Ruby Laser, Nd: YAG & Nd: in the Glass Lasers and Semiconductor Lasers: in the Homojunction Lasers Double-Hetero in the structure in the lasers, Gas lasers: Helium Neon laser, CO2 laser, Nitrogen Laser and Excimer in the Lasers, in the Free -Electron and X-Ray Lasers
Material Processing: in the Surface Hardening, in the Cutting, Drilling, in the Welding etc. Holography,in the Laser Communication, Medicine, Defense in the Industry, Atmospheric in the Physics
What is laser?
Brief History of laser development?
LASER is thein the acronym for in the Light Amplification by Stimulated in the Emission of in the Radiation
Albert Einstein………theory of stimulated emission…….1917
When the population in the inversion exists between upper and lower levels among atomic systems, it is possible to realize in the amplified stimulated in the emission and the stimulated emission has the same frequency and phase as the incident in the radiation.
- in the Notable scientists who in the pioneered the work include Charles Townes, in theJoseph Weber, in the Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolai G Basov.in the
- in the MASER (Microwave in the Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
- A device that amplified in the microwaves for its immediate application in microwave communication systems.
- in the Pioneering work of in the Townes and Prokhorov#
- Theodore Maiman in the 1960