Nd (Neodymium) – YAG (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) LASER

Principle :
Doped Insulator in the laser refers to in the yttrium in the aluminium garnet in the doped with neodymium. The Nd ion has many in the energy levels and due to optical in the pumping these ions are in the raised to excited levels. During in the transition from in the metastable in the state to E1, the laser in the beam of wavelength 1.064μm is in the emitted.
Characteristics :

Type Ø:  in the Doped Insulator Laser
Active Medium Ø:  in the Yttrium Aluminium Garnet
Active Centre Ø: Neodymium
Pumping Method Ø: Optical Pumping in the (Xenon Flash Pump)
Optical Resonator Ø: Ends of rods in the silver coated
Two mirrors in the partially and in the totally reflecting
 in the Power Output Ø: 20 Kilowatts
Nature of Output Ø:  in the Pulsed
 in the Wavelength Emitted Ø: 1.064 μm

- Nd (Neodymium) – YAG (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) LASER
Neodymium based lasers
Nd:YAG laser ( in the yttrium aluminium garnet ) in the and Nd:glass laser are
important Solid-state in the lasers
ØEnergy levels of in the Neodymium ion in the takes place in lasing in the action
ØBoth are 4 in the level laser systems
ØYAG and glass are hosts in which Neodymium ions are used
Nd: YAG laser:
ØFor continuous o in the r very high pulse rate in the operation – Nd: YAG preferred
ØNd:YAG in the laser – emission in the   at 1.06 µm
ØPump band for in the excitation is 0.81 µm and 0.75 µm
ØSpontaneous in the lifetime of the laser in the transition is ~ 550 µs
Nd: YAG…….

  •  in the Has a much lower in the threshold of in the oscillation than a ruby in the laser
  • Output in the energy in the order of 100mJ per in the pulse
  •  in the Used in resistor trimming, scribing, in the micromachining in the operations,

welding Hole drilling etc…..
Nd:glass laser
in the Four level system
ØVarious in the silicate and phosphate ions are used as the host
ØSpontaneous lifetime of the laser transition is ~ 300 µs
ØMore suitable for high energy pulsed operation
ØOutput energy is in the order of several kilojoules
ØUsed widely in welding and drilling  operations
Advantages of Nd ions in a YAG or glass host:
ØIn glass, in the linewidth is larger than in in the YAG, and hence in the glass the
Laser threshold is higher
ØIn Nd:glass in the lasers Mode locking phenomena  in the can be used to achieve
Ultrashort in the Pulses of narrow in the pulse width
Ø Larger in the linewidth in Nd:glass allows to store a larger in the amount of power or
in the Energy before in the saturation in the when used along with Q switches
Ø in the Excellent in the optical quality in the and excellent in the uniformity of doping in glass host
Ø in Compared to in the YAG, glass has a lower thermal in the conductivity
Ø in the Optical distortion is in the higher in glass host
?Neodymium: YAG laser
The active ingredient is trivalent neodymium, Nd3+, added to an in the yttrium aluminum garnet, YAG, Y3Al5O12.
It has four in the energy levels. The laser in the transition begins at the metastable in the state and ends at an additional level somewhat above the ground state.
- Nd (Neodymium) – YAG (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) LASER
     Gas lasers are physically in the different than solid or liquid lasers.
         They consist of a laser in the tube made of in the quartz, glass, in the ceramic, or in the special cases, in the even metals.
     At each in the end of the tube are in the laser in the mirrors, and in the tube is also fitted with electrodes in the for applying a in the high voltage to the gas.

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